Sarah Gardner has completed her PhD at Bradford University in 2001 and spent two years doing Postdoctoral Research at St James University Hospital in Leeds. Since then she has worked as a Primary Teacher, then as a Technician and Animal Science Lecturer at Writtle College, UK. She has published seven papers in reputable journals and presented at numerous conferences in the UK and abroad.
Lack of dental treatment leads to periodontal diseases which are one of the most common health problems in companion dogs today; although there are many products on the market claiming to prevent dental diseases such as dental diets, dental chews and mouthwash, information states that brushing dogs teeth with canine toothpaste provides the best protection. However, there is a lack of research supporting this statement. In this study Beaphar enzymatic canine toothpaste was used to investigate its efficiency on the oral microbiota of dogs. The number of colony forming units/ml were measured on nutrient agar before brushing (BB), after brushing (AB) and two hours after brushing (2H). The thirteen dogs used in this research were selected randomly based on age, breed, gender and background of treatment. Additionally, the dog owners completed a questionnaire to gain extra information about the dogs. Each individual dog displayed a unique profile of colony forming units/ml made up of a range of bacterial species. However some exhibited a very different bacterial profile at 2H. The majority of dogs displayed more bacteria before brushing than the two swabs after. There was no significant difference in colony number when the dogs were grouped according to size (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05) or compared with each individual (Friedman test, p<0.05). Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests identified common colonies as presumptive Bacteroides and Fusobacterium. Further research is needed to gain a greater understanding of how toothpaste affects the canine oral microflora in addition for further identification of the bacteria present.
Tanay Bilal has completed her PhD from Istanbul University. She is a Lecturer and Chief in the Department of Animal Nutrition & Nutritional Diseases. She has published more than 59 papers in various journals.
Sanguinaria canadensis L (bloodroot), an herbalceous perennial that contains benzophenanthridine alkaloids, including sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine, has attracted interest for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) is derived from the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was reported that MOS had effects on digestive system in animals such as protection of microfloral balance, activation of immune system and binding of mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the supplementation of Sanguinaria canadensis and/or MOS on body weight and serum total antioxidant activity in broilers under heat stress. A total of 72 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to 8 pens in two environmentally controlled rooms (4 pens per room). The dietary treatments were: Basal diet (control), basal diet plus 1 g/kg of the Sanguinaria canadensis, basal diet plus 1 g/kg of MOS, basal diet plus 1 g/kg of the Sanguinaria canadensis and 1 g/kg of MOS. At 15 days of age, the chickens in one of the two rooms were exposed to heat stress (34±2 oC) for 6 hours, while the chickens in another room were continuously kept in normal thermal environment, serving as control treatment (22±2 oC). Chicks were provided with ad libitum access to feed and water during the experimental period (42 days). The live weights of chicks were recorded at 21 and 42 day of the experiment. The blood samples were collected on day 42. During the study, body weights were significantly different and these differences were depended on diet and heat (p<0.001). Groups exposed to heat stress had lower body weights, however, the supplementation of Sanguinaria canadensis and MOS improved this situation positively. During the study, it was also determined that there was an interaction between diet and heat (respectively, p<0.024 and p<0.001). With regard to serum antioxidant analysis, differences between groups were significant for CUPRAC analysis results (p<0.01) and unsignificant for ABTS analysis results. However, it was determined that heat exposure had significant effect in both method (respectively, p<0.001 and p<0.05).