Day 1 :
Time : 09:30-10:20
Christina Adams is the author of “A Real Boy: A True Story of Autism, Early Intervention and Recovery,” the story of how she stopped her son’s unexpected descent into autism and illness and won him a second chance for a full life. Her work and writing appears in leading international publications and her patient case report “Autism treated with camel milk” has been cited many times and increased global industry interest..
Autism, or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication, along with unique strengths and differences. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates autism occurs in 1 in 36 US children as of 2016; the rate is 4 times higher in boys than girls. Signs appear between 2 and 3 years of age, but patients can be diagnosed as early as 18 months; infants as young as 6 months can benefit from early intervention. Motor skill impairment, food sensitivities and GI issues are common.
Researchers opine that autism is a complex disorder. Although genetic abnormalities are increasingly explored, recent studies have implicated physiological and metabolic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders, particularly immune dysregulation or inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposure. Adams has long theorized that camel milk addresses allergic response and inflammation in ASD and other inflammatory diseases.
Research-based evidence suggests that camel milk is rich in enzymes, antibodies and vitamins that benefit autistic children. Parents report better sleep, increased motor planning abilities, improved spatial awareness, more eye contact, better expressive language abilities, resolution of skin disorders and fewer gastrointestinal problems.
While the U.S. Food and Drug Administration cautions consumers about raw camel’s milk, to date both raw and pasteurized camel milk has been safely consumed in the US with no confirmed problems. A study by Baba Farid Centre for Special Children (BFCSC) along with National Research Centre on Camel (NRCC), Bikaner, has revealed that autism is a biomedical disorder and has indicated that camel milk is beneficial for autistic children. Improved safe distribution of camel milk would benefit ASD families, other patients and camel cultures.
The paper would relay important advantages of camel milk for autistic children and adults, and shed light on new markets and challenges for struggling camel cultures and emerging camel dairies.
Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, India
Time : 10:20-11:10
Tarun Kumar Gahlot is a professor of veterinary surgery in Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner, India. He is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Camel Practice and Research. He has developed lots of surgical techniques of dromedary camel and has published more than 150 clinical and research papers on this aspect. He has edited and authored more than five books on camels and three proceedings of international camel conference. He has successfully organized a special session on “Advances in Camel Science” at 7th International Veterinary Congress held on September 04-06, 2017 at Paris, France. Special session on camels with a theme “Camel Research: Challenges and Opportunities” will be organized by him in 11th International Veterinary Congress at Berlin, Germany scheduled on 2-3 July 2018.
Camel researchers from many countries are engaged in camel research and an overview of last five years (2013-2017) through publications in Journal of Camel Practice and Research indicates a greater focus of research in camelid physiology (11.11%), followed by camel milk and pathology (10.34% each), parasitology (9.2%), diseases (8.81%), immunology (5.75%), microbiology (5.36%), reproduction (4.98%), surgery, anatomy and nutrition (4.6% each), anaesthesia (4.21%), production (3.45%), imaging and pharmacology (3.06% each), meat (2.68%), genetics and breeding (2.3%) and serology/vaccinology (1.53%).
2013 A female racing camel calf was born with artificial insemination with frozen camel semen. Research on genes of Trypanosoma evansi, pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin, nutritional research on oat straw and groundnut haulms, camel meat and milk research, anatomy and reproductive endocrinology, contagious ecthyma infection, listeriosis in South American camelids, was done.
2014 MERS-CoV was recovered from nasal swabs of dromedaries. No evidence was found of Mycoplasma haemolamae and Anaplasma marginale. Molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria, Laswonia intracellularis, Babesia species and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was done. 25 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used for genotyping some camel types & subtypes.
2015 World’s first cloned camel became pregnant. Genetic diversity was studied using microsatellite markers in camel breeds. First isolation of Ignatzschineria indica was done. High-affinity melatonin receptor subtypes expressed in pineal gland of Bactrian camel through RT-PCR. Production of a caseous lymphadenitis vaccine took place.
2016 Molecular characterization of actin gene of Trypanosoma evansi, molecular modeling and docking study of acetylcholinesterase, ocular affections and a series of ultrasonographic studies on thoracic, abdominal and urinary affections were done.
2017 Immunization of dromedaries with live attenuated Brucella melitensis Rev 1 vaccine, kidney affections, renal cell carcinoma, uterine leiomyoma, pathogenic bacterial strains of raw camel milk and squamous cell carcinoma, imaging studies on stifle joint, identification and molecular cloning of heat shock proten-70 were done.
- Veterinary Medicine | Camel Science | Animal Reproduction | Animal Welfare | One Health | Veterinary Toxicology
T K Gahlot
Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, India
Sarnarinder Singh Randhawa
Khalsa College of Veterinary & AnimalÂ Sciences, India
King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
Shawaf T is working at Department of Clinical Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. His experience includes various programs, contributions and participation in different events for diverse fields of study. His research interests reflect in his wide range of publications in various national and international journals.
Biochemical analysis of Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) is a valuable aid in the diagnosis of neurological disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare some biochemical parameters in CSF of healthy and neurological affected camels. Also the valuability of flow cytometry as a tool for the analysis of the cellular component of camel CSF was evaluated. Five apparently healthy camels (control animals) and nine affected camels with a history of neurological signs (diseased animals) were included in this study. Most diseased camels had acute neurological symptoms including staggering, shaking, difficulties standing up and progressively worsening general condition. Camels were between 4 and 17 years old. The animals were clinically examined then blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein for hematological and biochemical analysis. After sedation and aseptically preparation of the caudal part of the neck, CFS sample was withdrawn from the atlanto-occipital articulation. Eighteen biochemical parameters were determined in the CSF for each camel. After centrifugation of CSF fluids (300 x g for 10 min), cell pellet was labelled with monoclonal antibodies against camel leukocyte antigens CD4, CD172a, MHCII. Total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, magnesium, sodium and total bilirubin were significantly higher in CSF of affected in comparison to healthy camels. In the other hand, the concentration of glucose was significant lower in affected camels than that in healthy animals. Flow cytometric analysis of labelled cells could define camel CSF CD4+ T cells, (B cells; MHCII+CD172a-) and macrophages (CD172a+).
Davood Sharifi has completed his veterinary graduation (B.V.Sc & A.H ,M.V.Sc & Ph.D.) from PAU & HAU in year 1990 India, he joined as an assistant professor to the University of Tehran in year 1991 and was self-promotion to full professor in year 2007. His master –plan was focused in orthopedic and spine surgery, lameness, physiotherapy and experimental surgery. He was selected as a distinguished and eminent researcher in year 2007 and 2009 in the University of Tehran. He has published three surgery books, and having 115 publications in his CV, participated in 62 national and international congresses with109 research papers. He directly supervised 98 undergraduates and 30 post–graduate students. He has 41 applied research projects. He is expert in PRT and PDC intervertebral disc treatment via CTScan. Presently he is acting as Director of Research at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Statement of the problem: Dogs with cervical vertebrae disc degeneration, budging and even calcification and even with wobbler syndrome show various clinical signs depends upon several factors, especially, the pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots, which are quite painful. Conservative management usually accompanied by mildly wobbly gait, but with repeated episodes of neck pain, surgery with replacement of disc recommended
Methodology & Materials: The complete cervical vertebrae from two medium size mongrel dogs cadaver were collected. The total of 3 discs along with end-plate and bodies were removed from each cadaver and transplanted to 3 other adult –large male mixed breed (25±30 Kg.bw) after complete removal of 3rd normal vertebral disc in each dog and stabilized with double 2.7 mm cancellous screw. Allograft osteodisc was impregnated with 1 ml broth of autologous mesenchymal stem cells before replacement (10-10) in first 3 dogs whereas the rest of 3 dogs used as control one. Five main radiographic parameters including osteodisc density, osteophytes and calcification of grafted tissue, dislocation and distance of grafted disc beside complication, infection and fracture were recorded before and after operation and at 6 months.
Findings: Radiographic data showed that grafted osteodisc plays a role in reconstruction or maintenance of intervertebral functional spinal unit, treated segment, and adjacent segments and did not show a significant difference before and after replacement. Clinical outcomes indicated that using osteodisc allograft for cervical disk replacement is reliable. Heterogenous density with no dislocation and discopathy in one case with variable changes in disc distance were prominent radiographic findings.
Conclusion & Significance: A disc replacement is thought to reduce mechanical stress when compared to a fusion. Using osteodisc allograft besides maintaining the “movable” normal cervical joints, preserving motion in the spine which is an ideal outcome.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Tal Raz is a Reproductive Biologist and a Theriogenologist at the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine (KSVM), Hebrew University, Israel. In 2002, he graduated as a DVM from KSVM, Hebrew University. In 2004 he began a three-year Theriogenology Residency Program in Animal Reproduction at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada, and in 2007, he became a Diplomate of the American College of Theriogenologists (ACT). In 2010, he completed his PhD in Animal Reproduction at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada, and thereafter conducted a Post-doctoral fellowship at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. Since 2013, he is a Faculty Member and Researcher at the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University. His current research is focused on the association between animal welfare and the reproductive system, the development of non-surgical sterilization methods, as well as the physiology and pathology of the female reproductive system.
Background: Overpopulation of stray cats is a major problem due to negative impacts on animal welfare, public nuisance and health, as well as possible harm to wildlife. Surgical sterilization is commonly used to prevent breeding; however, it has practical disadvantages and usually does not adequately implemented in a sufficient large-scale in field conditions. Therefore, attempts are made to develop non-surgical contraception/sterilization methods. Rabies is a deadly virus which may infect people and animals. Our objective was to examine the short-term safety and efficacy of anti-GnRH vaccine (GonaCon), combined with rabies vaccine.
Methodology & Study Design: Mature feral female cats were divided into the following groups: (I) GonaCon-rabies: vaccinated with GonaCon and rabies (n=5); (II) GonaCon2-rabies: vaccinated twice with GonaCon (3w apart) and with rabies (n=4); (III) OVx-rabies: vaccinated against rabies and underwent ovariohysterectomy (n=4); (IV) Intact-rabies: vaccinated against rabies and remained intact (n=3). Cats were monitored and sampled every two weeks for 14 weeks. Data analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA or Fisher exact test.
Results: There were neither systemic nor local adverse reactions at vaccination sites. Blood tests analyses revealed no differences among groups. There were no differences in the level of serum rabies antibodies among groups, and cats kept a protective antibodies titer (>0.5 IU/ml) starting at 2-4 weeks after vaccination. Anti-GnRH antibodies were detected in all GonaCon vaccinated cats, except for one cat in the GonaCon2-rabies group, which did not develop any anti-GnRH antibodies titer. Vaginal cytology and hormonal analyses support the effectiveness of GonaCon. The results of this study support the conclusion that in the short term, the combined vaccination with GonaCon and rabies is safe and effective. It also showed that there was no influence of the GonaCon vaccine on the rabies vaccine response and vice versa; however, further long-term studies are warranted before this regimen can be widely recommended.
Bombay Veterinary College, India
S D Ingole is a Professor of Veterinary Physiology at Bombay Veterinary College, Mumbai, India, and has 18 years of experience in research and teaching. He has expertise in Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology and has passion in improving the reproductive status of cattles. He has been conducting research on ovarian stem cells, pregnancy associated glycoproteins, urinary pregnanediol-3-glucoronide in buffaloes and use of melatonin in bull semen.
The production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) during cryopreservation of semen alters the sperm motion and mobility characteristics, which results in poor or failure of conception rate after artificial insemination. Melatonin (MLT) being an antioxidant molecule is able to modulate the effect of ROS and prevents spermatozoa by reducing the oxidative stress during freezing process. Total of eight ejaculates were collected from eight healthy Holstein Friesian bulls and diluted with Tris egg yolk glycerol extender. Each ejaculates were divided into five equal aliquots as control - pre-freeze, control – post-thaw without addition of melatonin and other three aliquots with 0.1 mM, 0.2 mM and 0.25 mM melatonin. After 48 hours of cryopreservation, the post-thaw samples were analyzed for motility parameters by Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and ultrastructure changes by means of transmission electron microscopy. The CASA results showed no significant difference between the control – post-thaw samples and melatonin treated samples, however, the velocity of spermatozoa with regard to the Straight Line Velocity (VSL), Average Path Velocity (VAP) showed highest increase in the 0.25 mM MLT treated semen followed by 0.1 mM MLT treated semen except for VCL where velocity increased with increase in the concentration of melatonin. The vigour of spermatozoa regard to Beat Cross Frequency (BCF), Straightness (STR), Linearity (LIN), recorded highest increase in the 0.25 mM MLT treated semen followed by 0.1 mM MLT treated semen except for the Lateral Head Displacement (ALH) where vigour increased with increase in the concentration of melatonin. The electron micrography images illustrated that the addition of 0.1 mM melatonin protected the plasma membrane and acrosome region and maintained the ultrastructure integrity of the cryopreserved spermatozoa when compared to control group, whereas the electron micrography of spermatozoa treated with 0.2 and 0.25 mM melatonin illustrated highest damage to the plasma and acrosome membrane. Thus concluding that inclusion of melatonin to sperm extender can improve the post-thaw quality of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa.
Khalsa College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, India
Title: Recent advances in production diseases of dairy animals during transition period with special reference to usage of herbal medicines for their control and management
Time : 14:15-14:45
Sarnarinder Singh Randhawa is a renowned Animal Health Specialist and has contributed significantly in development of cost effective technologies for enhancing livestock production, reproduction and health by undertaking, need based applied research in areas of animal nutrition, diagnostics, therapeutics and disease management. He has about thirty-eight years of experience in various capacities including as Professor and Head in PAU, Ludhiana, India; Former Director of Research; Dean Post Graduate Studies and; Director of Extension Education (GADVASU) in development and strengthening of veterinary sciences and livestock by making policy decisions, planning, implementation and monitoring of livestock; technical manpower development, development and transfer of technologies. He has published 348 research papers, invited papers, book chapters, manuals etc including in 11 conferences in ten (10) countries abroad and 43 in India including as Chairman/Co-Chairman. As Director of Research, he coordinated research by outsourcing funds through more than 100 research projects from various external agencies in India and International sources in Canada, USA, UK and Australia. He is Recipient of five fellowships viz. FNAAS, FNAVS, FISVM, FIAAVR, FASAW.
Production diseases are a group of conditions previously termed as metabolic diseases, some of which were well known and extensively studied but others less so, with majority being due to input and output deficit, or, in other words, to inadequate intake of the various nutrients needed for production. Roots of production diseases lie in the interaction between the animal’s physiology and the environment in which it lives. In addition to the traditional metabolic disorders in dairy cows like milk fever and ketosis, production diseases now encompasses hepatic lipidosis, subclinical acidosis, mastitis, endometritis, retained placenta and other post parturient reproductive disorders, and feet and leg abnormalities inducing lameness, such as laminitis and digital dermatitis. Transition period is often considered to occur from three weeks pre-partum to three weeks post-partum, as during this time frame homeorhetic regulation of metabolic functions is necessary in order to accommodate demands of parturition and lactogenesis. Recently, studies have shown that proper nutritional management during early dry period is important for maintaining health and productivity of transition cows. There is restricted availability of energy sources due to decreased dry matter intake (DMI) (decreases up to 30%) in the last three weeks of gestation and thus becoming the major factor for negative energy balance during a time of increased demand. Keeping in view the importance of production diseases in dairy industry the future research is more focussed towards prediction and prevention ideology. Generally veterinarians use various allopathic medications to treat each production disease, but there are variable responses and adverse effects related to dose, drug interaction and anaphylactic reactions. To overcome these problems, herbal supplementation is one of the alternatives, as there is less chance of toxicity, easy availability and also economical. Indian subcontinent is full of plant species having medicinal values, thus, researchers all over world are evaluating various herbal formulations for improving immunity, reducing oxidative stress, infections and improving milk production, shelf life as well as calf health which are the future producers. Extensive trails were undertaken to evaluate efficacy of herbal vitamin E- Selenium (E-Sel POWER, Indian Herbs Specialities Pvt Ltd., Saharanpur, India) for prevention of oxidative stress and mastitis. Similarly, comprehensive studies were also undertaken on herbal biocholine and LivoLiv-250 (Indian herbs Specialities Pvt Ltd., Saharanpur, India) for prevention and treatment of ketosis and hepatic lipidosis. The results were based on comprehensive evaluation of various hemato-biochemical parameters, plasma mineral profile, milk quality along with ultrasonographic evaluation of back fat thickness (BFT) and liver. Studies revealed promising results of these herbal formulations at specific doses.
Islamic Azad University, Iran
M Khodadadi has completed her PhD from Islamic Azad University, Tehran Branch. She has completed her Master’s in Aquaculture. She has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals (ISI and ISC) and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute. She is Managing Editor in Marine Biology Iran and Ecobiology of Wetland.
In this study, some parameters of reproductive biology of the Longnose trevally (Carangoides chrysophrys), gonadosomatic index, sex ratio, absolute fecundity and relative fecundity and gonadal development stages were investigated. Sampling in the waters of the Hormozgan Province from March 2013 to March 2014 with fishing vessels by trawl and gillnet was performed. In the study, a total of 376 specimens were investigated. Of this number 194 were male, 137 female and 45 immature. The female-to-male sex ratio was 1.42. The maximum absolute fecundity for the period March 21st- April 20th was 479992 ovules and the maximum relative fecundity in the period October 23rd-November 21st was 354 ovules per gram. The minimum absolute fecundity computed was 98247 for the period June 22nd-July 22nd and the minimum relative fecundity was 125 ovules per gram for the period June 22nd- July 22th. The mean Gonado-Somatic Index (GSI) computed for various months was 1.28 and the greatest gonadosomatic index was 2.86 for the period March 21st- April 20th and the minimum GSI was 0.43 for the period May 22nd-June 21st. The length at first maturity was 46 cm (LM 50).
National Research Center, Egypt
The present investigation has been done on pure Arabian mares that reared in private horse studs. 50 non-pregnant mares were selected and examined to be categorized as healthy or infertile mares. Infertility cases included clinical endometritis and anoestrus mares. The purpose of the study was to assess some oxidative/antioxidant enzymes some biochemical metabolites, lipogram, trace elements and reproductive hormones throughout reproductive conditions in mares during regular estrous, anestrum and endometritis. Furthermore, different treatments of infertility using various natural products were used. Results elaborated high concentrations of the free radicals, lipogram changes, and low levels of trace elements besides disturbance in reproductive hormones in the blood of infertile mare. Using natural products (fertility herbs mix, avocado and aloe vera combination with other natural products) were effective in treating various low fertile cases. In conclusion, using natural products in proper way and regular dosing is effective in controlling and treating infertility problems in Arabian mares.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Tal Raz is a Reproductive Biologist and a Theriogenologist at the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine (KSVM), Hebrew University, Israel. In 2002 he graduated as a DVM from KSVM, Hebrew University. In 2004 he began a three-year Theriogenology Residency Program in Animal Reproduction at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada, and in 2007, he became a Diplomate of the American College of Theriogenologists (ACT). In 2010, he completed his PhD in Animal Reproduction at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada, and thereafter conducted a Post-doctoral fellowship at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. Since 2013, he is a Faculty Member and Researcher at the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University. His current research is focused on the association between animal welfare and the reproductive system, the development of non-surgical sterilization methods, as well as the physiology and pathology of the female reproductive system.
Background: In most countries around the world, piglets routinely undergo a set of invasive procedures during the first days of their lives, which commonly includes tail docking, teeth clipping and surgical castration However, each of these procedures involves a degree of tissue damage potentially resulting in pain and stress, which may have negative short and long term effects on the piglet’s health, welfare and production measurements. Our objective was to examine production and welfare parameters of pigs from birth to slaughter under different managements, by avoiding these procedures, while providing alternatives such as anti-GnRH vaccine and environmental enrichment.
Study Design & Methodology: Litters (n=32 sows; 329 piglets; 3 days after farrowing) were allocated randomly into one of four groups; G1: surgical castration, tail docking and teeth clipping, without environmental enrichment; G2: same as G1, but meaningful environmental enrichment was provided; G3: non-surgical sterilization with anti-GnRH vaccine (Improvac®), tail docking, teeth clipping, with environmental enrichment; G4: none of the invasive procedures were performed, piglet were vaccinated (Improvac®) and environmental enrichment was provided.
Results: Mixed-effects linear regression model revealed that slaughter weight significantly increased when invasive procedures were avoided and environmental enrichment was provided. Weight interval from birth to slaughter was higher in G4 (G1:992±107, G2:999±14, G3:1036±158, G4:1065±16 Kg; P<005). The odds ratio to be weak, dead or injured in the conventional, non-enriched G1, was 89% higher than in G4 (P<005) Hair cortisol at weaning, as a marker for chronic stress during lactation, decreased gradually as management becomes welfare friendlier (-366 pg/mg for each step group, G1→G2→G3→G4; P<005). Anti-GnRH vaccine was effective in reducing serum and hair testosterone, similar to surgical castration. In conclusion, replacing surgical castration by anti-GnRH vaccine, avoiding teeth clipping and tail docking and providing environmental enrichment are better alternatives that would substantially benefit both the animals and farmers.
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Kehe Huang is currently a Professor and Head of Clinical Subject, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, China. He earned his DVM and PhD in Veterinary Pathology from Nanjing Agricultural University in 1982 and 1994, respectively. In 1982, 1994 and 1999, he accepted Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Full Professor positions at Nanjing Agricultural University, where he has been since that time. He has been working as Chair of Clinical Department from 1998 to 2017. He was a Visiting Scientist at universities in United States and UK in 1996-1998, 2009. He has been working in teaching of veterinary internal medicine, study on nutrient-immunity interactions, and diagnosis and treatment of veterinary clinic. His work leads to development of selenium-enriched probiotics, a new organic source of selenium and a new understanding for application of organic selenium on animal production. He has over 280 refereed publications, including over 80 SCI publications.
In recent years, numerous studies indicated that organic Se is more bioavailable. However, little has been done about the mechanisms of how selenomethionine (SeMet) protects against AFB1 and OTA - induced toxicity. Firstly, the primary splenocytes isolated from healthy pigs were stimulated by anti-pig-CD3 monoclonal antibodies and treated by various concentrations of SeMet and AFB1. The results showed that SeMet supplementation alleviated the immunotoxicity of AFB1 in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of buthionine sulfoximine abrogated the protective effects of SeMet against AFB1. SeMet enhanced mRNA and protein expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), selenoprotein S (SelS), and thioredoxin reductase 1 without and with AFB1 treatments. Furthermore, knockdown of GPx1 and SelS by GPx1-specific siRNA and SelS-specific siRNA diminished the protective effects of SeMet against AFB1-induced immunotoxicity. Secondly, the protective effects of SeMet against OTA-induced nephrotoxicity were investigated in PK15 cells. The results showed that OTA induced nephrotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. SeMet at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 µM had significant protective effects against OTA-induced nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, SeMet enhanced the activity, mRNA and protein expression of GPx1, mRNA expression of GPx4, mRNA expression of thioredoxin reductase 1 in the presence and absence of OTA. Knock-down of GPx1 by using a GPx1-specific siRNA eliminated the protective effects of SeMet against OTA-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusion, SeMet diminishes AFB1-induced immunotoxicity and OTA-induced nephrotoxicity by improving selenoprotein expression in PK15 cells.
Jhang (sub-campus University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore) PunjabPakistan
Amar Nasir has completed his PhD from the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan) in collaboration with the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Roseworthy campus, the University of Adelaide, S.A., Australia. He is currently serving as Assistant Professor Medicine at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and also peer reviewed papers for the local and international Journals.
Milk adulteration is emerging as one of the key issues of public health concern in the Asian countries particularly in the developing countries like Pakistan inflicting major economic losses to the dairy industry. This study was aimed to probe various adulterants and their impact on physico-chemical characteristics of milk marketed in Tehsil Shorkot (Punjab) and to evaluate the microbial status of the milk during 2016-17. A total of three hundred (n=300) milk samples collected from urban and peri-urban localities were examined for evaluating different adulterants as well as the physico-chemical profile, using a commercial kit and milk analyzer, respectively. In addition, the milk microbiological status was determined by culturing adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples on an appropriate medium to appraise the type and extent of bacterial contamination. The results showed that 91% milk samples were water adulterated, followed by Cane sugar (13.3%), formalin 9.7%, boric acid 9%, hydrogen peroxide 8.3%, carbonate 6.3%, starch 6.3%, urea 5.7%, soap 4.7%, sodium chloride 3.7%, Quaternary ammonium compounds 3.3% and sorbitol 2.6%, respectively. These adulterants markedly affected the freezing point, fat percentage, protein content, pH, total solids, solids-not-fat and lactose content of milk samples to -0.54oC, 3.4%, 2.4%, 7.3, 10.3%, 6% and 3.22%, respectively. Culturing and isolation of bacteria from raw milk samples demonstrated a significantly higher difference (P<0.05) in the incidence of E. coli and Enterobacter aerogenes contaminating adulterated milk than non-adulterated. It was concluded that milk adulteration is common malpractice in the study area posing a potential health risk for the consumers.
Although more than 100 people have been infected by H5N1 influenza A viruses, human-to-human transmission is rare1. What are the molecular barriers limiting human-to-human transmission? Here we demonstrate an anatomical difference in the distribution in the human airway of the different binding molecules preferred by the avian and human influenza viruses. The respective molecules are sialic acid linked to galactose by an α-2,3 linkage (SAα2,3Gal) and by an α-2,6 linkage (SAα2,6Gal)2. Our findings may provide a rational explanation for why H5N1 viruses at present rarely infect and spread between humans although they can replicate efficiently in the lungs. Avian and human flu viruses seem to target different regions of a patient & apos;s respiratory tract. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human pandemic threat. Between the end of February and the end of May 2003, a fowl plague outbreak occurred in The Netherlands. A highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus of subtype H7N7, closely related to low pathogenic virus isolates obtained from wild ducks, was isolated from chickens. The same virus was detected subsequently in 86 humans who handled affected poultry and in three of their family members. Of these 89 patients, 78 presented with conjunctivitis, 5 presented with conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness, 2 presented with influenza-like illness, and 4 did not fit the case definitions. Influenza-like illnesses were generally mild, but a fatal case of pneumonia in combination with acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred also. Most virus isolates obtained from humans, including probable secondary cases, had not accumulated significant mutations. However, the virus isolated from the fatal case displayed 14 amino acid substitutions, some of which may be associated with enhanced disease in this case. Because H7N7 viruses have caused disease in mammals, including horses, seals, and humans, on several occasions in the past, they may be unusual in their zoonotic potential and, thus, form a pandemic threat to humans.